Powerful eyes in the Naruto series. Doujutsu wielded by the descendants of the Rikudou Sennin's eldest son, the Uchiha Clan. It is an evolution of the Byakugan.
On his deathbed, The Rikudo Sage (/Rikudou Sennin/Sage of the Six Paths) had to choose one of his sons to continue his legacy, to try and bring his dream of world peace a reality. The elder son, who had his eyes, powerful chakra and spiritual energy, believed that might was the key to peace. His younger son who had his body, life force and physical energy, believed that love was the key to peace.
Believing his younger son to be his rightful successor, he choose him to continue his work. The elder brother attacked him out of hatred and the two bloodlines have fought ever since. The elder brother's descendants would become Hyuuga Clan and following from the evolution of Byakugan to Sharingan, the Uchiha Clan. The younger brother's descendants would become the Senju Clan ( 1st Hokage, 2nd Hokage and the 1st's grandchild, Tsunade).
The Uchiha Clan would become famous for its Sharingan eye, used for its power to reverse genjutsu, copy ninjutsu and see through any jutsu in which the Uchiha ninja could launch counter attacks with ease.
First State (single tomoe)Sasuke Uchiha first awakened the first version (single tomoe) after witnessing his brother Itachi slaughter the clan. The first time it would be awakened in the series itself would be during Sasuke and Naruto's battle with Zabuza and Haku. Unlike the first time Sasuke didn't collapse from activation, exhaustion and emotional stress so one ability of the second stage Sharingan (two tomoe) was shown when Sasuke could read the movements of needles being thrown at him by Haku to dodge effectively.
After Team 7 returned to Konoha to participate in the Chunnin Exams, Rock Lee was stopped from heavily defeating Sasuke by his own Jounin sensei. But the scuffle made it clear to Sasuke that even though his Sharingan could read Lee's movements, Sasuke's body wasn't fast enough to react to it.
Second Stage (two tomoe)Obito Uchiha awakened his Sharingan after the tension of battle made him want to protect his friends. He immediately used the Sharingan with great skill to see through a genjutsu and kill the attacking Rock ninja. Kakashi then received one of Obito's eyes as he died.
By the time Obito's eye is seen again Kakashi had already advanced it to the third (three tomoe) stage (unheard of by a non-Uchiha clan member), which was also shown for the first time in the series against Zabuza. Sasuke himself gained the third stage during his battle at the Valley of the End after accepting Naruto as his equal.
Third Stage (three tomoe)
This is the evolution of the normal Sharingan, it activates through the large emotional stress that one goes through when experiencing the loss of someone is who closest to them. Each person who activates it has a different pattern of eyes and depending on the person, can use different legendary jutsu.
Itachi Uchiha's Mangekyou Sharingan
Sasuke Uchiha's Mangekyou Sharingan
Kakashi Hatake's Mangekyou SharinganDeidara's arm off and again to send an exploding Deidara clone away to save Team Kakashi and Team 8 from certain death.
Kakashi may not be able to fully master the Mangekyou Sharingan techniques like Susanoo, but he does have an advantage himself that Uchiha Clan members don't have. While it is possible he could go blind while using Obito's eye he'll never go blind using his regular eye.
Eternal Mangekyou Sharingan
It is said that one who takes and replaces the Mangekyou eyes of one person with their own gains a new level of power in which they will never have to worry about the negative effects of the Mangekyou ever again.
The only two persons known to have accomplished this is Madara Uchiha, who took his brother's eyes ( Izuna Uchiha) and awakened a fusion of both, and Sasuke Uchiha, who Took Itachi's eyes in anticipation of his battle with Naruto in the Fourth Shinobi World War.
Madara Uchiha's Eternal Mangekyou SharinganMadara has been shown to have his own version of Susano'o, and able to use it indefinitely thanks to the Eternal Mangekyou form. Whether the other Madara Uchiha who goes by the alias Tobi can also do this is unknown, he has only ever been shown with Sharingan and Rinnegan implants.
Sasuke has been shown to combine Amaterasu and Susano'o at will, coating Susano'o's arrows in the black flame. In terms of genjutsu, Sasuke now has Itachi's version of Tsukuyomi.
The final evolution of the Sharingan, used by descendants of the Sage's elder son, is the Rinnegan itself. Theorically, all Uchiha clan members had the potential to advance their eyes this far, but only Madara Uchiha has achieved it and has access to Eternal Mangekyou Sharingan techiniques such as Susano'o and Rinnegan techiniques such as the Hungry Ghost Realm's jutsu absorbing ability,he Human Realm's soul removal, and many more..
The Sharingan is well known for its abilities to counter, copy and reverse whatever is used against it. Throughout the series Sasuke has been shown to use it mainly for countering attacks, Itachi favours Sharingan genjutsu and Kakashi has become famous all over the world for using his Sharingan to copy over 1,000 ninjutsu.
The one thing that the Sharingan has been shown to be incapable of copying are jutsus and abilities specific to a bloodline, such as Haku's natural ability to combine wind and water to create the Ice element. Other powerful jutsus not bloodline-specific such as Naruto Uzumaki's Wind Release: Rasen-Shuriken, does damage on such a scale that Kakashi wasn't able to read everything that was happening to Kakuzu's body at once.
How well the Sharingan can be used depends on its user. A Sharingan wielding ninja can't cancel out an opponent's jutsu by repeating themselves unless they have already mastered that specific element. An example can be seen when Akatsuki member Kisame tried to use a water dragon ninjutsu against Asuma Sarutobi, Kakashi appeared and mirrored the jutsu instantly as he is already proficient with the water element and the jutsu in question.
Prior to Kakashi arriving, genjutsu specialist Kurenai Yuuhi faced off against Itachi, Itachi did nothing to prevent himself falling into Kurenai's genjutsu because unknown to Kurenai, he had already countered it with his Sharingan, which became apparent after she found herself in her own trap with Itachi standing in front of her.
The Sharingan was also responsible for completing the Chidori jutsu. Despite being an impressive jutsu in its own right, in which Kakashi combined the Lightning element manipulation with nature manipulation, Kakashi had to be in close range to use it. To do so, he would charge head on at his enemies, leaving him wide open to counter attacks.
With the Sharingan he gained the tool he needed to strike foes head on while being able to dodge counter attacks at the same time. Later he would pass the jutsu onto Sasuke.
The "Copy Ninja" Kakashi of the Sharingan was given a single two tomoe Sharingan by his dying friend Obito Uchiha. Kakashi is unable to turn it off, meaning it is constantly activated so Kakashi has to keep it covered up when he's not using it. On top of that it drains his already small chakra stamina (Kakashi stated himself that even without the Kyuubi, Naruto has twice as much chakra than himself) a lot faster as his body isn't that of a Uchiha.
Extensive training over the same three-year period in which Naruto trained with Jiraiya and Sasuke trained with Orochimaru, Kakashi trained the adapt to the Sharingan more, allowing him to be able to use it for an entire day against Naruto and Sakura.
Hidden Leaf elder Danzo Shimura has one Sharingan eye (that belonged to Shisui Uchiha) and several more embedded in his arm. He too must keep them covered up at all times to prevent them functioning automatically and in the case of his arm, to simply not let anyone find out they are there.
A forbidden jutsu of the highest calibur in the Uchiha clan, Izanagi was originally a jutsu used by The Sage of the Six Paths and today is only accessible by those who change their bodies to accommodate both the Sage's blood-lines, that of the Uchiha and the Senju. Izanagi allows its user to change fantasy into reality, including escaping their own death.
The Sage was able to use it at will and created the 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9-tails from the chakra of the 10-tails. In the current time-zone in Naruto, anyone who uses it will lose a sharingan eye as it closes permanently. Madara Uchiha (Tobi) accumulated genes of the 1st Hokage during their fight, which he used to add to his own being and gain access to Izanagi. He used it to sacrifice an eye to survive 10 minutes of explosions in a fight with Konan. Madara has been shown to be capable of removing this closed eye however and replacing it with any eye from his collection of thousands.
Danzo has used an artificial version of the Izanagi, implanted with genes of the 1st Hokage by Orochimaru and embedding several Sharingan in his arm. His version has proven unstable however as he needs chakra reserves to hold the 1st Hokage's cells from trying to consume himself, as well as having no natural Uchiha blood.
Another forbidden jutsu just like Izanagi but it decides destiny. It causes a infinite loop in the mind of the victim. It was used by Itachi against Sage Mode Kabuto. Itachi explained its function to Sasuke as a counter to Izanagi should any Uchiha clan members overuse Izanagi or become to arrogant in it's use. The only way to free oneself of Izanami is to accept one's mistakes and acknowledge their true selves.
Copy Wheel Eye
Mirror Wheel Eye
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