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In Gundam's Universal Century, a Newtype is a human with an evolved sense of awareness and ability. Amuro Ray is the most well known of Newtypes.
Newtypes are described to be specific individuals who have a greater awareness of their surroundings. While the concept in the Gundam series remains vague, it is explained that Newtypes are found primarily among space dwelling humans (Spacenoids). This is thought to be an adaptation due to the drastic change in enviornment the Spacenoids are living in. One exception to this theory is Amuro Ray, the most well known of the Newtype's he was in fact born on Earth.
Newtypes abilities range from being able to clearly detect and anticipate actions, allowing the Newtype to react to conditions before they occur; while other Newtype's are only able to vaguely conceive their powers.