Home country of Ed and Al from Fullmetal Alchemist. The country was created by Father for only one purpose: to make a Nationwide Transmutation Circle.
The country is a military state(controlled by the military) .The ruler is King Bradley wich is secretly an homunculi.However Bradley is not the leader of the artificial humans,he is high in the hierarchy but he is under Father(manga) and Dante(anime).This man or woman is the one who founded this country for the sole purpose of creating a transmutation circle for the sake of the stone.Father wants the stone to open the Gate without paying a price so he can surpass God in power.This way he can basically create things out of nothing.Dante wants the stone to transfer her soul in Rose's body.
As said the Amestris is a country runned by the military.Contrarly to Xing it uses alchemy using the state alchemists as weapons of mass destruction .They are the equivalent of majors. Amestris possesses the Briggs forces in the north located at the frontier of Amestris and Drachma.Briggs is runned by Olivier Armstrong .This post is crucial as the country of Drachma is immense.